Information and results
We already know that modern East Asians are very closely related to each other and can only hardly be distinguished from each other. We also know that the populations of Siberia and Central Asia (such as Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Yeniseian, Uralic speakers as well as other various Paleo-Siberians), Southeast Asia and Polynesia (such as Austronesians, Austroasiatic, Kra-Dai, Hmong-Mien, and some others), and Native Americans (various groups) are closely related and can be traced back to an ancestral population somewhere in East Asia (southern China or nearby regions). Western anthropologists have called our people after the Mongolians → “Mongoloid”. Other western geneticists came up with a new geographical term “East-Eurasian”. It is not important how they call us or what term is preferred, but it is important to know and recognize our relation (genetically, culturally and linguistically) and to remember our shared ancestry.

信息和结果
我们已经知道,申博投注开户手机APP下载:现代东亚人彼此关系非常密切,很难区分。我们也知道西伯利亚和中亚的人口(如突厥人、蒙古人、通古斯人、叶尼塞人、乌拉尔人以及其他各种各样的古西伯利亚人)、东南亚和波利尼西亚人(如南岛人、奥斯特拉西亚人、克拉克-戴人、汉蒙-米恩人以及其他一些人)和美洲原住民(各种各样的群体) 关系密切,可以追溯到东亚某个地方(中国南部或附近地区)的一个祖先群体。西方在接触到蒙古人之后,其人类学家把我们的民族称为蒙古人种(Mongoloid)。其他西方遗传学家提出了一个新的地理术语“东方-欧亚”。 他们如何称呼我们或喜欢用什么术语并不重要,重要的是了解和认识我们之间的关系(基因上、文化上和语言上),并记住我们共同的祖先。

Some of you, dear readers, may know about the debate regarding human origins, noteworthy the Out-of-Africa theory and the multiregional origin theory. Most recently, the serious errors regarding genetics, archeology and shared alleles/mutations and SNP data, have shown up the flaws of the western supporter “Out-of-Africa” theory. These errors caused some western scholars to propose a “advanced version”, in which they suggest a multi-regional origin within Africa.
But most recently, several Chinese studies have revealed strong evidence for the multiregional origin of modern human populations outside of Africa.

The Central South University (CSU; 中南 大学) published two recent studies in 2019 and 2020 which support the multiregional origin theory. They found that the new genetic data is in contradiction with the Out-of-Africa theory and concluded that this evidence refute it completely.
亲爱的读者,你们中的一些人可能知道关于人类起源的争论,值得注意的是走出非洲的理论和多地区起源理论。最近,遗传学、考古学、共享等位基因/突变和SNP数据方面的严重错误,暴露了西方支持者“走出非洲”理论的缺陷。这些错误导致一些西方学者提出了一个“更进一步的版本”,他们认为非洲内部多地区起源。
但最近,中国的几项研究揭示了强有力的证据,证明现代人类起源于非洲以外的多个地区。
中南大学最近的两项研究发表在2019年和2020年,支持多地区起源的理论。他们发现新的基因数据与走出非洲的理论相矛盾,并得出结论,这一证据完全驳倒了它。


Huang additionally found that there was a much more complicated history of ancient human migration. Distinctive East Asian lineages are found at low frequency in populations of Africa and Europe. Especially the Khoisan macro-groups have unusual high East Asian like lineages which may explain certain physical features. He further notes that the three human ancestry groups share probably less than 12% of total genome, which additionally contradicts a single origin in Africa. The highest genetic diversity was found in modern day India, which harbors all three human ancestry cluster in varying degrees.

此外,黄还发现古代人类迁徙的历史(比想象中)要复杂得多。独特的东亚血统在非洲和欧洲的人群中发现的频率很低。但,科伊桑(位于南非)大群体,其东亚血统不寻常得高,这可以解释某些物理特征。他进一步指出,这三个人类祖先共享的基因组可能不到总基因组的12%,这又进一步与非洲的单一起源相矛盾。
在现代印度发现了最高的遗传多样性,这三个人类祖先在不同程度上聚集在一起。



The wider East Asian clade (East-Eurasian) is also known as Mongoloid “race” by early Westerners and anthropologists. These populations share specific autosomal DNA and SNP data, which helps to make a graphical distribution of these populations and their associated ancestry and ancestral genome.

更广泛的东亚分支(东欧亚)也被早期西方人和人类学家称为蒙古人种。 这些种群共享特定的常染色体DNA和SNP数据,这有助于绘制这些种群及其相关祖先基因组的图形分布。



东北亚人、东亚人和东南亚人,还有美洲原住民、中亚人、西伯利亚人和波利尼西亚人,在基因和种族上都是一个民族。他们可以清楚地与欧洲人、非洲人或印度人区分开来。



汉初中国与汉文化的扩张:


The Yellow river is seen as the homeland of the early Han Chinese and the much larger Sino-Tibetan ethno-linguistic group.
Distinctive Han Chinese culture can be dated back to 7,000 BC, to the so called Jiahu culture. Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC.
The Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. Along the central reaches of the Yellow River were the Jiahu culture (c. 7000 to 6600 BCE), the Yangshao culture (c. 5000 to 3000 BCE) and the Longshan culture (c. 3000 to 2000 BCE). Along the lower reaches of the river were the Qingliangang culture (c. 5400 to 4000 BCE), the Dawenkou culture (c. 4300 to 2500 BCE), and the Yueshi culture (c. 1900 to 1500 BCE).

黄河被视为早期汉人和更大的汉藏语系的家园。
中国独特的汉族文化可以追溯到公元前7000年,即所谓的贾湖文化。中国原始粟农业的早期证据是大约公元前7000年用放射性碳测定的。中国的新石器时代可以追溯到大约公元前10000年。黄河中游有贾湖文化(约公元前7000年至公元前6600年)、仰韶文化(约公元前5000年至公元前3000年)和龙山文化(约公元前3000年至2000年)。黄河下游有青莲岗文化(约公元前5400年至公元前4000年)、大汶口文化(约公元前4300年至2500年)和岳石文化(约公元前1900年至公元前1500年)。

The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire, which is dated 1.27 million years ago.
The oldest human remains were recently found in East Asia (central China) and display continuity to modern East Asians and Southeast Asians. See: Archaic human remains from Hualongdong, China, and Middle Pleistocene human continuity and variation
The Han Chinese trace a common ancestry to the Huaxia, the initial confederation of agricultural tribes living along the Yellow River. The term Huaxia refers to the collective Neolithic confederation of agricultural tribes Hua and Xia who settled along the Central Plains around the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in Northern China. The tribes were the ancestors of the modern Han Chinese people that gave birth to Chinese civilization. In addition, the term Huaxia (literally "the civilized Xia people") was distinctively used to represent a 'civilized' ethnic group in contrast to what was perceived as 'barbaric' foreigners around them

山西西侯度遗址有使用火的证据,可追溯至127万年前。
最近在东亚(中国中部)发现了最古老的人类遗骸,显示出与现代东亚和东南亚人的延续性。链接:《中国华龙洞古人类遗骸及中更新世人类延续与变异》
汉人与生活在黄河沿岸的农业部落的最初联盟华夏有着共同的祖先。“华夏”一词指的是新石器时代农业部落“华”和“夏”的联合,他们定居在中国北方黄河中下游的中原地区。这些部落是现代汉族的祖先,孕育了中华文明。此外,“华夏”一词(字面意思是“文明的夏人”)被用来代表一个“文明的”民族,而不是被认为是“野蛮的”外国人。
The civilizational prosperity of the Xia dynasty at this time is thought to have given rise to the name "Huaxia" (simplified Chinese: 华夏; traditional Chinese: 華夏; pinyin: Huá Xià, "the magnificent Xia"), a term that was used ubiquitously throughout history to define the Chinese nation, ethnicity and culture.


Recent linguistic, genetic and archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest Turkic peoples descended from agricultural communities in Northeast China who moved westwards into Mongolia in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle.

突厥人的扩张:



最近的语言、遗传和考古证据表明,最早的突厥人起源于中国东北的农业社区(agricultural communities),他们在公元前3千年晚期向西迁移到蒙古,在那里他们过着乡村牧歌的生活(a pastoral lifestyle)。

Uralic (Uralo-Siberian) expansion:
Uralic peoples expanded from an area between the Ob and Yenisei drainage in Central Siberia or near Lake Baikal. They brought Siberian/East Asian ancestry into parts of Europe.
In 2019, a study based on genetics, archaeology and linguistics found that Uralic speakers arrived in the Baltic region from the East, specifically from Siberia, at the beginning of the Iron Age some 2,500 years ago.

乌拉尔-西伯利亚人扩张:
乌拉尔人从西伯利亚中部鄂毕河和叶尼塞河之间的地区或贝加尔湖附近扩展而来。他们把西伯利亚/东亚的祖先带到了欧洲的部分地区。



2019年,一项基于遗传学、考古学和语言学的研究发现,在大约2500年前的铁器时代初期,乌拉尔语使用者从东方,特别是西伯利亚一直延伸到波罗的海地区。


Austronesian and Austroasiatic expansion:
Austroasiatic rice farmers expanded from southern China and modern day Laos and northern Vietnam into several regions of Southeast Asia and also India, starting at already 8,000 years ago. Austroasiatic rice agriculturalists from East Asia dominated Southeast Asia since about 6,000 years ago, and had also impact on eastern Indians.
Austronesians from Taiwan expanded into Southeast Asia in about 4,000 years ago and fastly dominated most of Southeast Asia. Austronesians also reached all of the Polynesian islands, America and Africa. They left noteworthy East Asian like ancestry in Madagascar and certain regions of Africa (coastal areas).

南岛人及南亚人的扩张:
早在8000年前,南亚稻农就从中国南部、现在的老挝和越南北部扩展到东南亚的几个地区和印度。东亚的稻农们大约6000年前就统治了东南亚,并对东印度人产生了影响。



大约4000年前,来自台湾的南岛人扩展到东南亚,并迅速统治了东南亚大部分地区。南岛人也到达了所有的波利尼西亚群岛,美洲和非洲。他们在马达加斯加和非洲某些地区(沿海地区)留下了值得注意的东亚人的血统。